Reformation of U.P - Evolution of the Uttaranchal (Uttarakhand)
The process of formation of U.P. started in 1775, when Nawab Asaf-ud-Daullah gave the southern part of the UP to the East India Company. In 1801 the Britishers obtain the Doab of Ganga and Yamuna fromthe Nawab of Avadh and included the land toward north of river Yamuna, after the second Maratha war in 1803 to 1805. After the Gorkha war in 1815 the British included the Kumaon region of Garhwal and made it a part of A vadh province in 1856. In 1901 Avadh and Agra were joined to form the combine province of Agra and A vadh. After independence, this region carne to be known as Uttar Pradesh. In 1815 the Britishers joined Garhwal and Kumaon to form a commissionary, which was also called the Kumaon province. Keeping in view the nature and culture of this hilly region and the Britishers chalked out a mode of governance and law that was different from that of the plains. Taking into account the geographical make up of the region the Britishers setup a small admlmstrahve umt to govern the region, known as Patwari Halka. For the benefit of the people and also for their efficient management the Patwari was equipped with the powers of the police and tax collector. The English also introduced. The system of drain and fist measurement (Naali and Mutthi) for me measure of the land in the region. The system is still in use in the region. The unforgettable contribution made by Chandara Singh Garlhwali toward national freedom struggle on 23rd April 1930 by igniting the soldier revolution known, as Peshawar Kand will always be written in golden words in the history of the freedom struggle of India. The Peshawar Kand induced Motilal Nehru to call for the nation wide celebration of this day as Garhwal day every year. The contribution of freedom fighters from Uttarakhand is second to none. Out of the 40,000 soldiers in the Azad Hind Fauz, 2500 were Garhwalis. Amongst martyrs from U.P. in various wars fought after Indian independence more than half were Garhwalis. Two regiments of Indian army are named as Garhwal regiment and Kumaon regiment. The region becomes popular as Uttarakhand before the formation of Uttaranchal state. The region was called Uttarakhand even in the days of Panini and Kautilya.
Reference: "Uttaranchal - Dilemma of Plenties and Scarcities" by VP Sati and Kamlesh Kumar
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