The first ever agitation for the hill state was organized in 1957 under the leadership of erstwhile ruler of Tehri Manvendra Shah but it took almost 14 years to assume shape of a common cause of the people of the region. Uttarakhand Rajya Parishad, formed in 1973 took up the cause and became a platform for struggle. The movement produced a political party, namely Uttarakhand Kranti Dal in July 1979 under the chairmanship of former vice-chancellor of Kumaun University. Its first-ever MLA (Jaswant Singh Bisht) was elected in the assembly election held in 1980.
Kashi Singh Eree wining in 1985 became its second representative to the state assembly. But this was the only main road, Uttarakhand Kranti Dal could make. Bhartiya Janata Party came up with a major force (and ultimately became a dominant party) in the hills after it started justifying the demand for new state.
As far the state assembly was concerned, it passed a government-sponsored motion demanding Uttarakhand state, on 12th August 1991 Samajwadi Party chief Mulayam Singh Yadav government came up with a resolution to the same effect, and done the state assembly adopt it on 24th August 1994. Three years later, on 24th April 1997, the state assembly passed yet another government motion urging the center to do the needful for creating a hill state. The central government headed by the BJP, came up with a constitutional amendment bill, the first exercise of the kind, in 1994 and through the President of India, urged the state assembly to give its opinion on various provisions of the bill. The state assembly, in turn, passed a resolution offering as many as 26 amendments to the central draft bill including the one to bar Haridwar becoming part of the new state and almost usurping a number of proprietarily rights over the irrigation and power projects and major natural resources. The proposed Uttarakhand State would be marked by very considerable diversity in several contexts, viz., geographic, tQPographic and demographic. First we have the foothill plains of the tarai, which are generally fertile as well as endowed with warm climate and substantial water resources. In Kumaon the terai has become a veritable granary of cereal crops and quality seeds. There is then the Siwalik area that has many Duns. There are five of these, namely, Dehradun between Yamuna and Ganga, Chaukhamba and Kothari Duns between the Ganga and Western Ramganga, Patlidun between western Ramganga and Kosi and Kotadun between Kosi and Baur. To the north of Siwalk are stretched the 70 km wide lesser Himalayas. With sloppy terrains this area is comparatively, more densely populated belt of Uttaranchal and within it many urban agglomerations are located such as Nainital, Pauri, Pithoragarh, Almora, Rudraprayag, Gopeshwar, Bageshwar, Ranikhet, Tehri, Champawat, etc.
The amendments suggested by the state assembly include among other things, full property rights to Uttar Pradesh as far as power projects and water resources are concerned. All irrigation and power projects, already in existence and also those under construction, will belong to Uttar Pradesh, said the resolution. It also provides for a 60-member Assembly of the new state and till this house is constituted through all legal formalities, an interim Assembly will function on its behalf. There was a furor when Home Minister L.K. Advani stood up for tabling the bill, in yet another attempt to fulfill party’s long-standing promise on 17th May 2000 in the Lok Sabha. The Uttar Pradesh reformation bill was passed in the Lok Sabha on 1st August 2000 and in the Rajya Sabha on 10 August 2000. The President gave his approval to the bill on 28th August 2000. Later it was notified to the official gazetteer.
Political analysts conclude that as against long-drawn and bitter struggle for. creation of most of new states, people of Uttaranchal are getting it rather comfortably- reason being that both the major political parties, which matter in the hills have a common cause as far as creation of the new state in concerned. Uttaranchal, like all other new states has a history but dotted mostly with strikes, bundhs, meetings, conferences and the like, barring a major incident of police and administrative excesses mostly on women who were proceeding to Delhi to participate in a rally organized in support of Uttaranchal on second October 1994 in Muzaffarnagar in western. U.P.
FORMATION OF UTTARAKHAND
Uttarakhand emerged as the 27th state of India on 9th November 2000, leading to the fulfillment of the long cherished dream of the people who are the residents of this hilly region. Mr. Surjeet Singh Barnala was appointed as the Governor of the newly formed state comprising of 13 Districts, while Mr. Nityanand Swami was appointed as The First Chief Minister of the state. The historical parade grounds of Dehradun (temporary Capital of Uttarakhand) served as a venue to the oath ceremony of the Governor and Chief Minister of the newly formed state.
The important events that led to formation of Uttarakhand are as follows:
In 1930 the local residents of region moved a resolution by majority vote and claimed for a separate state of Uttarakhand. Thus the foundation of the movement for a separate state of Uttarakhand was way back in 1930.
5th- 6th May1938 : In a political convention of the Congress in Srinagar (British Garhwal) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru stated that keeping in view the distance geographic shapes and traditions, and for development of the region, the people of the region should have the right to the frame policies and take decision on for themselves on important issues.
1946 : In the convention in Haldwani Garhwal Kesri Badri Outt Pandey demanded special status for the region Garh Kesri Ansuya Prasad Bahuguna called for development of Garhwal Kumaon region as a separate unit or state.
1954 : Indira Singh Nayal a member of state legislative assembly wrote a letter to the Chief Minister Govind Vallabh Pant requesting for separate arrangements for the development of the region.
1955 : Fazal Ali called for reformation of U.P. with the intention of forming a separate state of Uttrakhand.
1957 : Vice-President of planning commission T.T. Krishnachari called for special attention to the problem of the people of hilly regions.
12th May 1970 : Indira Gandhi imposed the responsibility of backwardness and under developement of the hill stations V.P. on the state and the Central Government.
24th July 1979.: Formation of “Uttarakhand Kranti Dal” for the formation of a separate hill state.
June 1987 : Pledge for formation of separate Uttarakhand state in all party meeting in Karnprayag.
Nov. 1987 : Protest in Delhi and noticed to President. Haridwar was included as a part of Uttarakhand as per notice.
1991 : B.J.P. government passed the proposal for formation of Uttaranchal in the legislative assembly and send it to Central Government for approval.
1994 : Chief Minister Mulayam Singh Yadav set up Kaniskya committee for evaluating demands for Uttarakhand. On 21 June 1994, the committee submitted its report in favour of Uttarakhand.
June 1994 : Students’ movements all over Uttarakhand for separate state.
19th Aug. 1994 : Strike observed by employees of state government in Nainital, slogans were shorted in Loksabaha
1st Sep. 1994 : Police firing on protestors in Khatima, many were killed curfew imposed in Haldwani and Khatima .
2nd Sep. 1994 : Police firing on protestors in Mussorrie, 7 killed including DSP.
3rd Sep. 1994: Mass protest of people from all walks of life including students, women etc. in all over Uttaranchal.
1st – 2nd Oct. 1994 : Atrocities on protestors in their way to Delhi many killed, many imprisoned, their bus was set to fire, misbehaviour with women Mass protest in Delhi police firing on mob.
3rd Oct. 1994: Mass protest all over Uttarakhand public property were destroyed curfew imposed in various region one person each killed in Nainital, Rishikesh and Dehradun
7th Oct. 1994 : One woman killed in police firing, one police station looted and policemen made to parade without uniform.
13th Oct. 1994 : One killed during curfew in Dehradun.
27th Oct. 1994 : Peace restored in Uttarakhand after talks with then Home Minister Rajesh Pilot.
10th Nov. 1995 : Two protestors killed as a result of police atrocities on protestors in Triyank Taapu, Srinagar.
5th Aug. 1996 : Prime Minister H. D. Devegauda announced the formation of Uttarakhand state from the red fort and asked the state legislative assembly for its opinion
1998 : For the first time B.J.P. sent an ordinance for the formation of Uttarakhand state through the President to the state legislative assembly.
2000 : The government headed by Atal Behari Vajpayee once again sent the Uttar Pradesh reformation bill-2000 for the formation of Uttarakhand. The Central Government presented the bill in the Lok Sabha on 27th July 2000, the bill was passed in the Lok Sabha on the 1st August 2000 and on 10th August 2000 in the Rajya Sabha. On 28th August 2000 it received the sanction of the President. The Central Government fixed 9th November 2000 for the formation of the Uttarakhand state.
Reference: “Uttaranchal – Dilemma of Plenties and Scarcities” by VP Sati and Kamlesh Kumar